|Running head: RESEARCH PROPOSAL ON CLIMATE ENGINEERING||16|
Research Proposal: Climate Engineering
A. Impacts and Reasons
B. Mitigation Tools
II. Problem Definition and Research Gap
III. Research Questions
IV. Research Objectives
V. Significance of the Research
VI. Research Hypothesis
VII. Research Methodology
VIII. Literature Review
IX. Hypothesis Evaluation
There are certain impacts of climate change face by earth are as follows:
· Less Rainfall
· Less Production
· Water Shortage
· Crops Destruction
· Limited Resources
· Future instability
· Lack of measures
Above-mentioned are basically certain impacts of which are the reason and become the reason against earth’s climate change. For instance, if climate does not change upon certain conditions it will have adverse effects to earth. Likewise, there should be certain measures or technology must be inducing around the which can prevent earth affecting from global warming.
There are certain essential tools which can cause the wrath temperature in control and stay earth climate cool and favourable for planet in order to prevent from global warming and other climate destruction reasons. Tools which can be used are given below:
· Climate Engineering
· Use of Modern and Advanced Technology
· Industrial units must be checked and renewed
· Avoid Water wastage
· Grow more Trees
· Less Construction
Above-mentioned are certain measures and prevention activities in order to stay earth green. For instance, if we grow more tress it would be helpful in making immense change in climate especially in those areas where even average rainfall around the year is less. Likewise, climate engineering is a modern and advanced technological measure to make earth’s cool and removes the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Duffus, 2009). These are actually intervention in climate change, the technology is highly controversial but at the same time it is beneficial for those regions/states around the world where climate is consistently hot and unfavourable for crops where climate engineering must be implemented and becomes a necessity.
This specific research on climate engineering is basically portrays the association between climate engineering and climate change. Both are directly related to each other because it is an ultimate source and alternative to stay earth’s climate cool, favourable for the living things i.e. plants, animals, human beings etc. Now, Climate Engineering is becoming highly controversial for several states and NGO’s that they it is an intervention technology which intentionally change the natural earth’s climate and un-favourable for earth’s species as well. On the other hand, climate engineering is an essential tool and modern technology of this 19th century through which pollution, harmful gases like carbon dioxide removes from earth’s atmosphere in order to make it favourable for earth climate so as earth species as well.
To address this problem is basically a resourceful activity in order to make earth’s cool and prevent it from global warming because lots of things directly related to climate change, if climate does not change with time and upon specific time, it would become harmful for earth species. For this purpose, this problem statement and research gap would be addressed by consulting secondary data i.e. different scholarly articles to reach end results.
· Is climate engineering effective in combating climate change?
Climate engineering refers to the large scale deliberate intervention aimed at overcoming climate change. The engineering process involves removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Keith, 2013). It also entails proper management of solar radiation to ensure that global temperature remain within acceptable range suitable for human habitation. In this research, we address the above-mentioned research question which describes that whether climate engineering process is an effective tool to combat climate change or not? For this purpose, we consult different scholarly articles, researches along with their effective comparison in order to reach to the results that climate engineering is an favourable tool to make earth’s climate cool or not.
As we previously mentioned that carbon energy is cited for the majority of greenhouse gasses, major global powers such as the United States have campaigned against curbing climate change because of potential impact on the economy. Their opposition is reflected in America’s withdrawal for the Paris agreement on climate change that undertook to cut down carbon emission levels significantly. This brings forth the need to consider climate engineering as suitable alternative solution for addressing climate change. It is against this backdrop that this research proposes research question on climate engineering. All these issues are involved in one research question which would be addressed in detail throughout favourable researches.
Climate and climate change is one of most important issue nowadays because with the passage of time, industries are growing day by day due to which harmful gases, pollution become the reason of climate destruction. The aim of this research is to understand the concept of climate and how it relates to human development. Climatic destruction would be able to birth a crucial and difficult future for earth and species on it. As we have defined certain research objectives in research proposal which would be observed and defined through different scholarly researches. There are number of researches have been done on climate and climate engineering for which we use their experiences to define climatic engineering and to reach final results effectively and efficiently. Climate change has largely been overshadowed by controversies regarding the reliability of data used to arrive at scientific recommendations (Barrett, 2014). Most importantly the research aims at evaluating the potential for climate engineering as an important strategy to fighting global warming. This determination is crucial in the development of long term solutions to one of the most controversial and potentially dangerous phenomenon.
There are certain objectives which would be proved later in research by considering different authors researches, articles etc. Research objectives are given below:
i. To understand the causes and potential impact of climate change
ii. To determine the strength and weaknesses of climate engineering as a method of curbing global warming
iii. To determine the implications of climate engineering as a long term strategy to overcoming climate change.
iv. To recommend forms of climate engineering methods that can potentially limit global warming
Above-mentioned are basic research objectives which would be explained in research when we review the literature in detail. These objectives are highly important and create direct relation between climate and climatic engineering. Methods, forms, strategies of climatic engineering will be discussed followed by its strength and weaknesses which have great impact on climatic change as it has been declared as intentionally intervention process to change earth’s climate.
Global warming is today’s hot issue upon which earth’s future is highly depends. For this purpose, certain effective measures need to be taken in order to solve these issues. Climatic Engineering of the effective measure which help in changing the earth climate and prevent earth from future global warming. The research aims at assessing the reliability of climate engineering as an effective method of curbing climate change. The significance of this method stems from lack of political interest when alternative and cheaper methods of climate change are proposed (Hulme, 2014). Adopting legislations that limit the use of carbon power appears more conventional. This significance would be discussed in literature review section of the research where different researches will demonstrate that how important that topic is and how important is the implementation of effective measures now in order to save earth’s future.
As we consider the research proposal where we defined that if we properly administer the policies and climate engineering policies, it would beneficial for earth and positive climate change outcomes in the future. For this purpose, we set the research hypothesis is the administration and use of climate engineering at right time, whether it would be effective for earth’s climate or not? It speculates that legitimate organization of atmosphere building will yield alluring environmental change results. Expelling carbon dioxide from the environment can be accomplished through sea treatment among different strategies (Hulme, 2014). Science has demonstrated that the sea has many living things that utilization photosynthesis to assimilate carbon dioxide. Specifically, the minor single-celled creature called phytoplankton is known to retain a lot of carbon dioxide. Upon the demise of the green growth, they sink to the sea floor holding the carbon mixes with them.
The life form likewise requires iron substance for their development. This has prompted proposal that designers can build the measure of sea iron to shoot up the populace development of phytoplankton with the goal that they can assimilate carbon dioxide from the air. In spite of the fact that this technique may demonstrate hostile in light of potential harm to marine life, there are a few different types of geo-designing that can be connected to control environmental change. Hamilton (2013) contends that atmosphere designing can’t be utilized as a substitute for gas emanations. The creator recommends that while the potential for atmosphere designing systems guarantees real effect later on, they should be utilized couple with other regular strategies for restricting ozone depleting substance emanations. This hypothesis is later explaining and proved and analysed by considering scholarly articles so that it would be proved that climate engineering is an effective tool in order to change then climate rapidly or not?
As far as research methodology is concerned, there are number of researches have been done on the climate change. This research will investigate climate engineering as a strategy to fighting climate change. The research will utilize secondary data drawn from peer-reviewed articles published within the last ten years. The researcher proposes to utilize qualitative descriptive methodologies to examine the practicability of climate engineering in modern science. Due to having modern and advanced technology, climate engineering is an emerging and most controversial tool which can be effective for earth’s atmosphere b removing CO2 Successfully. For this purpose, we use secondary research data and will be considering scholarly articles in order to define and explain the hypothesis in detail with examples, reasons and in the light of effective and efficient researches.
To explain this research topic, it is essential to follow and consult various scholarly articles in order to reach to final results which will demonstrate that how climatic engineering relates to climate. It would be done by considering different researches on same topic climatic engineering and earth’s climate. For this purpose, first we have to assess the risk associated with consistent earth’s climatic change around the globe.
The lead scientist of the report, Dr. Simon Ashby, Associate Professor of Financial Services in the Plymouth Business School at the University of Plymouth, says:
“Time influenced loads up working in perplexing and dynamic situations can think that it’s difficult to put risk in a positive setting. Be that as it may, the scholarly researches on climatic engineering who do make associations between these association’s methodologies and risk the executive’s choices can receive noteworthy benefits. With risk comes opportunity, giving barricades gauge the dangers and returns related with various key choices, we discovered that risk administration can upgrade it by implementing effective and efficient climatic control measures which would be able to prevent earth from global warming and various other dangers in future. (Beer 2018). Industries can’t misuse vital risks or shield themselves from potential misfortunes or disappointments by continuously leaving smoke, harmful gases into the atmosphere and make it harmful for earth and its species.
To fix these risks and implementing mitigation strategies to overcome these risks regarding climatic change and most advanced, modern tool i.e. climatic engineering is a best to overcome these upcoming earth climate change threats. (Gordon, 2017) an English author explains in his research that there are several regions in this world having less rainfall like gulf countries where weather is usually hot throughout the year which is not favourable for human beings, animals and plants. For this purpose, they usually import goods regarding food items mostly from other countries because they don’t have their own much cultivation and irrigation processes. Due to having less rainfall, they effectively use of modern and advanced technology i.e. climate engineering through which they remove carbon dioxide from air which is harmful if exceeds from certain limits (Gordon, 2017). Cloud Seeding is a process of climate engineering through which they change the weather of certain regions in order to make earth’s temperature cool so that earth’s species can have hope to survive. For instance, if we take example of UAE where there is no rainfall in summers due to which they use cloud seeding in different cities at different times to change the climate for a certain period, an effective and efficient process of climate engineering which is helpful for earth temperature remains cool and vigilant for mankind, wildlife (Henderson, 2018). Several other researches declare that climate engineering is one of major and authentic, useful process to change the climate for useful purposes, it does not have any harmful affect to earth especially wild life because it has numerous properties which makes it favourable for earth at specific time when it is necessary to change the earth climate. Solar Geo Engineering, Reforestation and several others modern techniques which can be used to cool down earth’s temperature rapidly. It would greatly help in preventing the earth from global warming and harmful future.
(Carry, 2017) explains that how geoengineering an advanced technology faces international politics for to not to use as a plan B for tackling climate change. He further explains that, geoengineering advances might want to make beast scale and deliberate interventions in the climate system possible. A standard including is that operators are examining a ‘Plan B’ if equality fails to oust risky common change. A few choices are thought to can modify the genuine issues of basic change certainly, yet in investigating whether they may finally decrease condition risks, their political and security recommendations have so far not been given adequate observable quality. This article propels what it calls the ‘security peril’ and fights this could be a major factor in picking if an improvement is fit, finally, to decrease air dangers. Bits of knowledge concerning all things considered relationship of geoengineering rely on exceptional inquiries regarding state reasonability and an all-around pacific in all cases structure. Also, if in an air made world atmosphere events become something certain states can be made indisputably responsible for, this may in like way unjustifiably impact prospects for ‘Plan A’, for instance an inducing all things considered synchronization on levelling.
After a short time, it shows up, there’s a creation understanding that the next eighteen months will be fundamental in dealing with the general warming crisis, among other natural bothers. A year sooner, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) point by demonstrate that keep the move in all things considered temperatures underneath 1.5C this century, transmissions of carbon dioxide would should be cut by 45% by 2030. Regardless, today, onlookers see that the conclusive, political steps to enable the cuts in carbon to happen ought to happen before the fulfilment of one year from now. The likelihood that 2020 is a firm due date was expressively tended to by one of the world’s top air examiners, talking in 2017.
The earth math is merciless clear: While the world can’t be fixed inside the going with couple of years, it may be mortally harmed through inconsiderateness until 2020,” said Hans Joachim, originator and now official emeritus of the Potsdam Climate Institute. The inclination that the satisfaction of one year from now is the last shot bar for natural change is convincing the opportunity to be much progressively clear reliably (Joachim, 2013). He has enduringly of the view that the accompanying eighteen months will pick our ability to keep organic change to survivable levels and to restore nature to the modification we requirement for our survival,” said Prince Charles, talking at a get-together for Commonwealth outside ministers starting late.
(Biermann, 2019) explains that diverse late assessments experience that ‘Climate Engineering Process’ degrees of progress may need to acknowledge a basic occupation later on. Such movements may pass on certifiable dangers for making nations that are routinely particularly frail against, and need adaptable ability to manage, the effects of such new improvements. In this condition, one would anticipate that creation nations particularly the least made nations that are most helpless should expect a focal occupation in the rising visit on atmosphere organizing. In any case, by then, as this article appears in detail, the exchange about whether and how to connect with these movements is moulded by specialists from only a little course of action of nations in the Global North. Information age around air arranging remains firmly overseen by the basic research establishments in North America and Europe. Drawing on data from 70 atmosphere structure occasions some spot in the extent of 2009 and 2017 close by broad record appraisal, the article maps a nonattendance of relationship of making nations and features how much their burdens remain deficiently tended to in politically huge genuine evaluation reports (Bhandari, 2017). The article wraps up by representing decisions that creation nations may need to influence the motivation on atmosphere organizing, considering prior endeavours to develop authority over novel movements and impact generally speaking game plan setting.
There are number of NGO’s and other welfare institutes working for the betterment of the earth’s climate in order to save the earth from bitter future. For this purpose, they create awareness among people to all over the world that how much water is important for future. They visit far off places where people are just surviving on water and there is not much food at all because of less rainfall due to which they are unable to grow vegetables etc. Death rate is also high in remote areas in Africa especially. The global reason behind the shortage of water is useless wastage, number of industries, insane traffics etc. makes environment unfavourable for the earth due to which climate affects a lot. For this purpose, print media, electronic media and other sources are being used in order to control earth’s temperature from harmful gases spreading in its atmosphere which create carbon dioxide. Educating people is necessary because if we do not act vigilantly today then we will suffer tomorrow.
Likewise, there are modern, advanced techniques which are mentioned above and explained as well. Some of the NGO’s oppose these technologies because they think it ruins earth’s climate but many of them support (Ming, 2013). They are supporting in such a way that earth’s temperature needs to cool down at specific times because it becomes a necessity in order to prevent it from global warming. For instance, climate engineering is an appropriate procedure to control the earth’s climate in such a way that it removes harmful gases from atmosphere and make earth’s climate favourable which leads towards rainfall which would be able to water those regions where it is necessary, help crops to grow, shortage of water becomes fulfil etc. If it is done once then climate cycle continues and it behaves naturally. These are effective and authentic tools researched and approved by scientists, authors that it is a necessity.
Based on consideration of scholarly researches where different authors and opinions have been considered in order to explain that whether climate engineering is really a controversial tool to change the earth’s atmosphere or not? It is highly debatable topic because it already creates political issues internationally that it would not be effective and can harm the earth’s climate when climate changes artificially. On the other hand, several researches support the climate engineering process that it is a basic necessity for earth nowadays because due to increase in industrial areas, increase in harmful gases in atmosphere, environmental issues, pollution etc. would be able to darken the earth’s future in shape of global warming. It is also effective for those countries or regions where there is entirely no rainfall where it is highly effective tool to change the climate artificially after a certain period so that mankind, wild life and other species i.e. plants would be able survive and breathe easily otherwise it would definitely increase in death rates.
After having detailed discussion, we support and accept the hypothesis that ‘‘Climate Engineering is a modern technology and an effective and efficient tool to change the earth climate which is effective for present and in future as well’’. A hypothesis is now becoming a reality which needs to be accepted by the world that due to increasing in earth’s temperature, climate engineering, geoengineering, reforestation and several others are modern tools have been invented by the hard work of scientists to save the earth from destruction (Burns, 2013). These are highly recommended solutions and can be used in the hour of need in every region around the globe.
Determinately, planet earth is not only for mankind, there are numerous other creatures exist for which the survival of those creatures is extremely important in order to let the mankind survive. Due to having more humidity in air, pollution, insane traffic, increase in industries etc. is a core reason for earth’s climate destruction. For this purpose, several modern techniques have been evolved and implemented by developed and mostly undeveloped countries in order to cools the earth’s temperature which removes the global warming threat and is able to save earth from horrible future.
References Bhandari, M. P. (2017). Climate Change Science. Agriculture and Environmental Science. Biermann, F. (2019). Climate Engineering discourses and the marginalization of the global south. International Environmental Agreements. Burns, W. C. (2013). Climate Engineering Under Paris Agreement. Special Report. Carry, O. (2017). Geoengineering faces international politics. Research Article. Duffus, A. L. (2009). Effects of Environmental change on wildlife health. Biological Science. Gordon, D. (2017). Understanding Climate Engineering. Climate Engineering2017. Henderson, R. M. (2018). Climate change in 2018: Implications for Businesses. Harvard Business School Review. Joachim. (2013). Rapid change in earth’s climate. environmental physics. Ming, T. (2013). Fighting Global Warming with Climate Engineering. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Barrett, S., Lenton, T. M., Millner, A., Tavoni, A., Carpenter, S., Anderies, J. M., … & Folke, C. (2014). Climate engineering reconsidered. Nature Climate Change, 4(7), 527. Hamilton, C. (2013). Earthmasters: the dawn of the age of climate engineering. Yale University Press. Hulme, M. (2014). Can science fix climate change? A case against climate engineering. John Wiley & Sons. Keller, D. P., Feng, E. Y., & Oschlies, A. (2014). Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. Nature communications, 5, 3304. Keith, D. (2013). A case for climate engineering. MIT Press.
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