# Lesson 5 Forum

###### Descartes, Rationalism, And Philosophy
November 13, 2020
###### Do you figure the war is going to fit in with your ideas
November 13, 2020

Lesson 5 Forum

For our discussion this week, again, you have a choice of images to analyze.  We'll perform a group Toulmin analysis of the advertisement and cartoon that appear on page 126-27 of your textbook.  After viewing both the ad and cartoon, select ONE and post a response in which you answer one or more of the following questions: 1) What is the claim? Is the claim stated or implied?  2) What is the support? 3) What are the warrants? 4) Is there any backing for the warrants? 5) Is there a rebuttal? 6) Is there a qualifier? and 7) Do you find the images to be convincing or persuasive? Why or why not?

Exercises and Activities (pg126-127)

· A. Group Work and Class Discussion: Truth Versus Probability

This activity invites you to compare topics that are true and therefore not arguable with topics that are probable and thus open to argument. Think about one other course you are taking this semester and write down one example of something you have learned in that course that is absolutely true or untrue about which you could not argue. Then write one example of something you have learned in that course that is only probably true or untrue and that you therefore see as arguable. Make a class list of these examples. Think carefully about everything you put in the true and untrue columns. These must be topics that no one would argue about because they have been proved to be true or untrue. Here are some key words to help you think about these two types of information.

· True: certain, fact, exact statement, right, correct, valid; wrong, incorrect, invalid

· Probable: possible, opinion, qualified, reasonable, sound; unreasonable, unsound

You will be learning both types of information in college. Which topics on the probable list might be good topics for argument papers?

· B. Group Work and Class Discussion: Using the Toulmin Model to Analyze an Advertisement

1. What is the claim? Complete the sentence, “The author wants me to believe that . . . ” Is the claim stated or implied?
2. What is the support? Complete the sentence, “The author wants me to believe that . . . [the claim] because . . . [support].” Look for subclaims (reasons) and specific support (e.g., facts, opinions, examples).
3. What is the logical warrant? Using the “if/then” (support, claim) model, write out what you see as the internal logic underlying this argument. Remember that logical warrants supply the link between support and claim.
4. What are the contextual warrants? What does the author value or believe regarding the claim? Are these values stated or implied? What assumptions does this advertisement invite its viewers to make?

1. Is there backing for any of the warrants? Ask, “Does the author supply any additional information or rely on any commonly accepted cultural beliefs and attitudes that would make it easier for me to accept the warrants, whether they are stated or implied? What are they?”
2. Is there a rebuttal? Ask, “Are other views on the issue represented here along with reasons? What are they?”
3. Is there a qualifier? Ask, “Is the claim stated in absolute terms (e.g., always, never, the best, the worst) or in probable terms (e.g., sometimes, probably, possibly)?”
4. Do you find this ad convincing? Why or why not?
5. C. Group Work and Class Discussion: Using the Toulmin Model to Analyze a Cartoon

Analyze the cartoon below and discuss the answers to the following questions:

c. What is the claim?

c. What is the support?

c. What are the warrants?

c. What is the backing?

c. Are rebuttals or qualifiers present? If so, describe them.

1. D. Group Work and Class Discussion: Using the Toulmin Model to Analyze an Online Argument

This activity asks you to apply the analytical skills you have honed in previous exercises to arguments you might encounter online. Go online and find an example that presents a contentious or controversial issue being debated. First, answer the same questions as before: (a) What is the claim? (b) What is the support? (c) What is the logical warrant? (d) What are the contextual warrants? (e) What is the backing? (f) Are rebuttals or qualifiers present? If so, describe them.

When you have finished, return to the question of logical and contextual warrants. Think a bit further about the particular online form in which your argument appears. What is the underlying logic that compels or requires an audience to accept the argument being made? What is the larger context here? Who would you say is the target or intended audience? What assumptions are being made here about who this audience is and what they are looking for? How much of the argument presented here depends on these assumptions being true? How many of these assumptions do you share yourself?

1. E. Group Work and Class Discussion: Using the Toulmin Model to Read and Analyze a Short Essay

Read the article on pages 128 – 129 . Then answer the questions and discuss your answers with the class. You can expect some disagreement because of your differing backgrounds and experiences. If you disagree on some of these answers, try to figure out what is causing your differences.

e. What is the claim? Is it explicitly stated, or did you have to infer it?

e. What are some examples of support?

e. What are the author’s warrants? Does the author supply backing for the warrants? If yes, how?

e. Do you share the author’s warrants, or do you have conflicting warrants? If you have conflicting warrants, what are they?

e. Is there a rebuttal in the article? If yes, what is it?

e. Is the claim qualified? How?

e. Do you find this argument convincing? Why or why not?

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