Biological Foundations


Part A- Carbohydrates

1. Name the functional groups present in a galactose molecule and the link to water solubility of this simple sugar. Where in nature can galactose be found?

2. Identify the structure and function of starch. Which monosaccharide(s) is (are) the building block of starch? Where in nature can starch be found?

3. There are some similarities and differences in the structure and function of glycogen and cellulose. Briefly compare these two substances and describe two major differences (in the function) and two similarities of these substances.

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4. Name two disaccharides and describe the digestion (hydrolysis) of these two disaccharides.

5. Classify the following two carbohydrates and describe where they are found in nature: (4

a. Hyaluronic acid

b. Chitin

Part B- Lipids

1. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? Give an example for each type of fatty acid, and include the structural formula.

2. Describe the structure of triacylglycerol (TAG) and explain the hydrolysis of TAGs.

3. Identify three major functions of lipids and name an example for each lipid.

4. Explain the structure and the function of cell membrane. In your answer, include the following:

a) the role of phospholipid

b) the role of cholesterol

c) the function(s) of protein

5. What are bile acids? What is their role in digestion of lipids?

Part C- Proteins

1. Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical roles in the human body. Describe four major functions of proteins in the human body with one example for each.

2. Describe the primary level and quaternary level of protein structure in haemoglobin.

3. Define denaturation of proteins and list four different ways to denature a protein?

4. What is the function of an enzyme? What is the definition of the active site of an enzyme?

5. Discuss the differences between simple and conjugated enzymes. In your answer, include the categories of cofactors with examples.

Part D- Nucleic acids/ cells/ transport

1. Nucleic acids, DNA and RNA:

a. What is the main function of DNA in the cell?

b. Describe the structure of DNA.

c. List the three types of RNA and describe their functions

2. Group the following compounds based on their presence in DNA or RNA.





D- Deoxyribose


3. Briefly explain the following three ways of transport across the cell membrane: simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport.

4. Name the main function of mitochondria and ribosomes in the cell.


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